Osteoarthritis of the knee is a disease of the musculoskeletal system, that is, of the deformation and the destruction of the cartilage tissue of the joints, because of this the structure and function of cartilage violated. The disease has a couple of names — osteoarthritis osteoarthritis, arthrosis deformans. The treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee is not unambiguously a schema or a single medication that could help equally all those who suffer from this problem. As osteoarthritis is a disease that is progressive, occurs most often in women who suffer from overweight, venous disease, and the elderly. The treatment is performed and is assigned individually for each patient.
Osteoarthritis of the knee can be mono or bilateral (depending on why on one or two sides develops the disease). When the first symptoms it is necessary to use adequate care, because ignoring this problem can lead to the definitive destruction of the cartilage and to deprive the people of the bones and, consequently, of the disability of a person.
There are three stages of disease:
- The initial stage of osteoarthritis of the knee is characterized by a loss of the depreciation of the property and, as a result, the cartilage while driving rub against one another, bringing a strong discomfort to the patient. The cartilage becomes rough, deformed, dry, in the execution of the initial stages of the disease — also covered with cracks.
- Because of the reduction of the depreciation starts the deformation of the bones, which leads to the formation of osteophytes (outgrowths on the surface of the bones) is already the second stage of the disease. Warping sheath knee-length and the capsule is also subject to deformation, the knee joint as a result of disuse because of the rigidity of the movements. There was also a change in the density of the joint fluid (becomes more dense, viscous), circulatory disorders, impairment of the nutrient in the knee. Thinning the strip between the cartilage in the joints reduces the distance between the mating bones.
- The disease progresses rapidly and quite fast moves to the third stage, when the patient is practically unable to move because of a persistent pain in the knee. The cartilage tissue occur the global and irreversible changes that lead to the disability of a person.
Often arthritis or osteoarthritis osteoarthritis develops as a result of an accident or injury, if this person feels a constant pain in the knee, which greatly fetters the movements.
Reasons for the development of osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis of the knee, treatment that requires a long enough time, may occur because of such factors as:
- Genetic predisposition.
- Injury: sprains, contusions, fractures. During the treatment, the injured knee joint fixed and a man of a certain time can not bend and straighten the leg. This leads to a deterioration of the circulation, which often causes the development of post-traumatic stress disorder gonartrosie.
- The removal of the meniscus.
- The excessive exercise, not suitable for the age of the person, consequent to traumas or microtraumas, and the cold of the joints. For example, older people it is not recommended to run on asphalt or squat, as well as during these exercises occurs a considerable pressure on the knee, and with age it is consumed and is not able to withstand this load.
- Excess weight and obesity. This factor leads to damage menisci, lesions that cause the development of osteoarthritis of the knees.
- Messy ligaments or weak ligaments.
- Arthritis or other diseases acquired in the joints. The inflammatory process can cause the build up of synovial fluid in the joint cavity or tumor. This causes the destruction of the cartilage of the knee, which leads to the joints arthrosis of the knee.
- Disorders of metabolism in the human body. Insufficient amount of calcium significantly worsens the state of the bone and cartilaginous tissues of the human body.
- A flat foot. Incorrect configuration of the foot shifts the center of gravity, and the load in the joint becomes larger.
- The stress and tension of bulimia nervosa.
The symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knees
The clinical picture of the disease has the following symptoms:
- The sensation of pain. The pain occurs suddenly, depending on the physical load to the knee. The pain may have a different character. In the initial phase is weak back pain, which is usually the man does not pay particular attention. Periodic moderate pain can be observed for months, sometimes years, until the disease becomes more aggressive phase.
- Visible deformation of the knee. This symptom manifests itself in the later stages. Before the knee looks swollen or bloated.
- The accumulation of fluid in the joint cavity of the joint, cysts or Baker. Is a formation on the rear wall of the knee.
- The creaking of the joints. Sharp crispy sounds, which are accompanied by pain were observed in patients in the second and third phase of the development of the disease.
- The inflammatory reactions in the synovial joint shell, as a result, the cartilage swells and increases in volume.
- Reduced joint mobility. It is observed in the later stages. The bending of the knee becomes almost impossible to and accompanied by strong pain. In the last phase of the knee can be completely immobilized. The movement of a person becomes difficult or even impossible (some patients move on bent legs).
The treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
The treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee must be global. To date, no medical treatment, without which no man free me from this violation. One of the most important conditions of success of the treatment is the time of diagnosis. Before started the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee, the more possibility to prolong the period of remission and to prevent the destruction and deformation of cartilage and bone tissue.
During the treatment before the doctor and the patient are worth different activities:
- Eliminate or reduce the sensation of pain;
- To determine the contribution of nutrients in the knee, and thus to improve its replacement function;
- Activate the blood circulation in the knee area;
- Strengthen the muscles around the joint;
- Improve joint mobility;
- Strive to increase the distance between the articulated bones.
The treatment of the disease depending on the stage of its development can be conservative and operative.
The conservative treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
Painkillers and anti-inflammatory medications
To alleviate or reduce the sensation of pain to the patient is usually given a course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS). These can be tablets, ointments, and also injection. Among the most common pain relief medications you can call the following. The medicine can be used in two versions — in or locally.
Usually patients prefer local treatment in the form of gel, ointments, heating patches. The effect of these pain medications do not arrive in a moment, and after a couple of days (about 3-4 days). The maximum effect is reached after one week of regular use of the drug. These medicines do not cure the disease as such, but only relieve the pain, why you start treatment for pain impossible.
Intake of pain medication, you should take strictly as prescribed by a doctor, use them only in case of strong pain, as well as a long and often their use can lead to side effects and also promote the destruction of cartilage tissue of joints. Moreover, the administration of these drugs increases the risk of adverse reactions, including gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, interrupting the normal functioning of the liver, and the kidneys, are also possible allergic reactions in the form of dermatitis.
Sometimes the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee is prescribed the intake of hormonal drugs. Their prescribed, if the FANS already are not effective, and the disease starts to progress. Often hormonal drugs for the treatment of this disease are applied in the form of injection.
The course of hormonal treatment is usually short and is assigned in a period of strong aggravation, when in the common fluid builds up inflammatory. The hormone is inserted into the joint about once every ten days.
For the recovery and the nutrition of the cartilage in the early stages of the disease is assigned to the admission to a course of glucosamine and hondroitinsulfata — the so-called chondroprotectors. This is by far the most effective treatment of osteoarthritis. Have so there are almost no contraindications and side effects occur in rare cases.
To relieve the spasm of the small blood vessels, improving circulation and delivery of nutrients in the knee area, and also the resolution vascular pain assigned to vasodilator drugs. Crush them, along with the protectors of the cartilage. If the knee osteoarthritis is not accompanied by an accumulation of liquid, it is also recommended to use ointments, gels, liquids.
The course of THERAPY can be very useful and bring good results only in one case, when he was appointed a physician and carried out under the supervision, on the basis of the indications of a specialist or a coach. The self-medication is dangerous for health. Applies physical THERAPY as a further prevention of destruction of cartilage tissue, slowing down the development rigidity, muscle relaxation, spasm, pain. In a period of acute THERAPY is contraindicated. Special course of different exercises that take into account not only the stage of the disease and the state in which is located the cartilage, but also the age of the patient, must develop an experienced, competent in this field.
As one of the methods of conservative treatment applies physiotherapy — electrophoresis, laser therapy, acupuncture, DD currents, UHF. Results learned a lot from this and gives the local course of the massage. Physiotherapy techniques act in several directions — to alleviate pain, reduce inflammation, normalize the metabolism within the joint, restore the usual functions. The method and the duration of treatment of physiotherapy due to history of allergy of the patient and is only given after a careful diagnosis and the study of the state of the joints.
The pain of the physiotherapy refer to:
- The middle ultraviolet irradiation (SF-radiation). Contact uv rays with the skin of the knee continues until the appearance of a slight redness. In the tissue-forming substances, which blunts the sensitivity of the nerve fibres, and reached the analgesic effect. The duration of treatment is assigned a doctor according to the symptoms, the frequency and the severity of the pain. On average the course of treatment is approximately 7-8 sessions.
- Local magnetic therapy, aimed at the total healing of the body of the patient. This procedure reduces inflammation, eliminates the feeling of pain, neutralizes muscle spasms. Effectively applied with osteoarthritis of the knee in the initial phases. The treatment is usually limited to 20-25 procedures, each of which lasts about half an hour.
- Infrared laser therapy, low-intensity UHF-therapy, inch therapy (SMV-therapy).
- Ultrasound, darsonvalization, therapeutic baths, the interference-therapy, that is assigned with the objective to improve the circulation inside the joint.
Of considerable importance to health-spa treatment. Is given this treatment when strain and dystrophic osteoarthritis. This treatment, as listed above, has its contraindications, then the doctor will carefully examine the medical history of the patient before recommending a health care method.
The surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee
This is a radical method of treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee, which is partially or fully restore the functioning of the joint. The methods and forms of surgery depends on the degree of injury of the joint, but also by the history of the patient.
Brunch osteoarthritis of the knee is treated only surgically — the knee joint is completely or partially replaced by the endoprosthesis. The surgical treatment allows to not only improve health, but also to return working capacity of the patient in the last stages of osteoarthritis of the knee. A significant disadvantage of the operations, many believe a long period of recovery with the application of PHYSIOTHERAPY, mechano, and other means.
There are different types of surgery with osteoarthritis of the knee:
The prevention of arthritis of the knee
To prevent this disease people belonging to the risk group (athletes, the elderly, people with excess weight, the workers of the enterprises), must meet some requirements:
- A proper diet and struggle with being overweight. You need to eliminate from your diet harmful products in food — abbiategrasso, fried, alcohol, and best to consult a nutritionist, who individually will help you to choose an adequate diet.
- When playing sports, and monitor loads on the joints, with the need to reduce his.
- Monitor their health and treat infectious diseases, not allowing them to enter into the chronic phase.
- Timely and appropriate treatment of diseases of the spine, if appropriate, the production of a correct posture.
- Sports activities (cycling, swimming, walking, special shoes exercises of gymnastics for the joints).
- No self-medication! When the first symptoms of arthritis of the knee, contact a clinic.
- Avoid stress, have a restful sleep.
- Systematically increase the immune system (or at least take a course of vitamin 2-3 times a year).
- To prevent hypothermia of the body, especially of the lower limbs.
A healthy lifestyle and early treatment are the best tools for the prevention of arthritis of the knee.