Lumbago

Causes of back pain in the waist area

Most people, mostly middle-aged and elderly people, suffer from back pain in the lumbar region, and men and women suffer equally. Pain may occur after physical activity, hypothermia, weight lifting and bearing, or long periods of inactivity. "Into the back"-this is how patients often characterize back pain.

Reason

It should be noted that soreness of varying intensity mainly occurs in people of active age under 60 years of age. This is due to the constant movement of the muscles that support the spine and its natural curve. Since this person is most often in an upright position, the muscles rarely rest.

The fragility of the lumbar spine is due to its weaknesses: small triangles and Grenfeld-Lesgaft quadrilaterals (diamonds). The muscle layer of the deltoid muscle is weakly expressed, and the gap between the terminal edge of the platysma and the external oblique muscle is small. The Grunfeld-Lesgaft diamond does not cover the oblique abdominal muscle from above, but its strengthening ability is poor, so it is easy to form a lumbar hernia.

The psoas major is the deepest muscle in the body. It affects the flexibility, strength, range of motion and mobility of joints and the work of internal organs. It is this muscle that is responsible for maintaining a person's vertical position and actively lifting the legs when walking.

Proper psoas major muscle function provides support for the entire upper body and provides a platform for the internal organs of the abdomen. Frequent contraction due to stress or overwork causes this muscle to become shorter, which can lead to low back pain, compression of nerve endings, vertebral deformation, and the development of joint degeneration. Chronic spasm of the psoas muscle has extremely adverse effects on posture, breathing depth and the state of vital organs.

Low back pain is a symptom

The lower back may be injured due to spinal problems or systemic diseases. Clinically, several forms of pain syndrome are distinguished: localized, projection, reflex, nerve root (radical) and caused by muscle spasm.

The local pain syndrome in the waist area is permanent and its intensity depends on the location of the body. In addition, soreness increases with movement and palpation of specific areas. With this form of pain, the mobility of the trunk and lower limbs may be restricted.

Projection pain syndrome is caused by damage to the vertebrae and paravertebral (paravertebral) structures. It can be diffuse or local in nature, and is caused by compression of nerve endings that transmit signals to the appropriate parts of the brain. At the same time, the sensation of pain travels along the affected nerve and increases as the body turns and tilts. In hard work or sports, th dynamic pain will be found, and its origin is related to the axial load of the spine.

Radical pain syndrome is characterized by suddenness and obvious intensity: this is what the patient means when the back is "caught. "The pain is so severe that a person cannot straighten out and is often forced to stay in a position where the radial back pain exceeds him.

In the absence of exercise, the root cause pain syndrome will not disappear and will naturally become painful. However, when trying to move, it will be accompanied by severe cramps and severe back pain. In most cases, it shoots not only in the lower back, but also in the entire leg up to the ankle. The distinctive feature of radial pain is that it is exacerbated when turning to the side, bending and lifting straight legs from a prone position.

Reflex pain syndrome indicates damage to internal organs. This is due to the fact that the lumbar spine and tissues near the pathological site are innervated by the same nerve. Because the pain travels from the inside of the body to the surface of the back, the pain is difficult to distinguish, blurs, and persists with exercise and does not increase with pressure.

Low back pain can be acute or chronic. If this symptom is troubled for no more than three months, it is an acute attack. If the damaged tissue does not recover during this time, it will become chronic.

Classification

Low back pain is classified according to the mechanism of occurrence, and may be harmful, neurological and psychotic. When nociceptors-nociceptors are stimulated, nociceptive types appear, which are caused by tissue damage caused by mechanical damage or local inflammation (sprains, contusions).

Why is the back injured in the lumbar area and what to do

Hernia is one of the consequences of osteochondrosis, which manifests as a herniated disc between the vertebral bodies.

Neuropathic pain is accompanied by squeezing of the nerve roots of the intervertebral hernia. They differ in the exposure (recoil) of the lower extremities and are combined with numbness and some stiffness in movements. This pain does not go away on its own and is usually chronic.

Mental type is a rare phenomenon, which may be caused by traumatic conditions or impaired nervous system function.

This classification is conditional, because in most cases, these three types cause pain to some extent. To define pain, doctors use several terms: low back pain, low back pain and low back pain.

Low back pain is a sudden, painful episode that patients describe as "break" or "shock" and are on par with lightning or electric shock. Low back pain gradually begins, and it is characterized by the pain mainly in the lower part of the waist and at the end of the spine.

Lumbar discomfort, the back will not continue to be hurt; pain will occur after staying in a stationary position for a long time or bending the torso. It is difficult for patients to bend over or even perform simple activities such as washing their face, brushing teeth or ironing clothes. They are looking for the most advantageous posture to relieve the tension and condition of the psoas muscles.

Lumbago neuralgia is a pain syndrome that affects the waist, buttocks, and the posterolateral part of one or both legs. Any exercise, including coughing or sneezing, will make the condition worse.

Possible lesions

In most cases, the lower back is injured by a muscle strain, especially during intense training or unusual physical exercise. In this case, the pain trigger is the rupture of the connective fibers at the muscle attachment point.

In the pathology that causes this symptom, the following points should be noted:

  • Intervertebral hernia.The main symptoms are sudden severe pain, stiffness, back stiffness, and lower limb weakness;
  • Compression fracture of the spine. Injuries, osteoporosis and tumors occur;
  • Cauda equina syndrome.The complexity of this symptom is caused by compression of a large number of nerve bundles located between the first lumbar vertebra and the tailbone. It manifests as severe pain from left to right or below the waist. Pain syndrome radiates to one or both sides of the limbs and groin area. The progression of the disease leads to impaired tactile sensitivity and severe weakness in the legs. If left untreated, serious complications will occur, including disability;
  • Acute abdominal aortic aneurysm.Lower back pain and heaviness are often the only symptoms of this condition. The most common diagnosis is the elderly who suffer from atherosclerosis and complain of painful stitches at night;
  • Infectious disease.Stretching and dull pain in the lower back cause chronic bacterial infections of the skin, genitourinary system and respiratory system, impaired immune system function, taking hormone drugs. In addition to pain, there is discomfort in the abdomen and groin area behind the breastbone;
  • Tumor.Pain is worrying both day and night and gradually increases. Usually, the weight will drop sharply for no apparent reason. Among people over 50 with a history of cancer, tumors are most commonly diagnosed.

Gastrointestinal disease may cause belt pain. The feeling of being pulled in the waist is usually accompanied by gynecological diseases. Congenital bone defects and metabolic abnormalities can also cause lower back pain.

Note:If the lower back is severely ill and the pain is unbearable, then we can assume that urolithiasis worsens when the stone moves along the urinary tract.

Treatment

The treatment of back pain from any source is one of the most challenging medical fields. All modern research on this topic says one thing: Acute pain in the lower back and lower limbs must be eliminated as soon as possible. If you cannot relieve the pain in time and allow the chronic onset of the pain syndrome, it will create a prerequisite for the development of psychological disorders. They are superimposed on clinical symptoms, slowing the healing process and weakening its effect. Therefore, first of all, they can relieve pain regardless of the intensity.

Need non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and analgesics to relieve pain. In severe cases, when a person is very painful to walk and has severe lower back pain, therapeutic blockers can be used.

How to treat low back pain

Analgesics are weak, moderate and strong. The latter can give you quick pain relief, but they have many side effects. In the case of severe damage to the intervertebral disc and compression of nerve endings, it is reasonable to use them.

Modern Pharmacology provides therapeutic patches with different ingredients-anti-inflammatory, warmth, cartilage protection and herbal supplements.

If the pain is mild or moderate, your doctor will prescribe pain medicine. In the case of destroying the paravertebral structure, the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-NSAID with triple action. They not only relieve pain, but also suppress inflammation and lower body temperature.

NSAIDs can be used in the form of tablets or injections, and in the form of ointments or gels.

The use of plaster shows good results. The B vitamins prescribed by doctors in injections or pills can help treat low back pain.

Muscle cramps often cause severe pain syndrome, which helps muscle relaxants. The severe pain and tics caused by inflammation are controlled by hormone drugs.

Repair block

Sometimes, the only way to relieve pain is to use a blockage. The injection will cut off one of the links in the pathological chain, so the pain impulse will not reach the back, legs and internal organs. The block can be used for diagnostic purposes to establish the true cause of pain.

After the injection, the pain will disappear within a few minutes, and the process itself is like a puncture. The instructions for its implementation are as follows:

  • Osteochondrosis and its complications-herniation and intervertebral disc herniation;
  • Myositis;
  • Neuralgia;
  • Spondyloarthropathy (calcification of the vertebrae).

Note:Blocking is only performed in a sterile hospital environment. This is due to the fact that the spinal cord is vulnerable to various pathogenic microorganisms. When infected with a virus, fatal consequences cannot be ruled out.

No more than four medical blockades per year. If necessary, 10 or more injections can be prescribed. Between them, you definitely need 5-7 days of rest. The solution to block injections contains several components, mainly painkillers. Adding corticosteroids can reduce inflammation. The composition for injection may also contain vitamins, thrombolytic agents, and enzymes. To normalize the transmission of nerve impulses, ATP is introduced into the solution.

Physical Therapy

What to do after the acute symptoms are relieved depends on the type and severity of the disease. Massage, exercise therapy and physical therapy can be assigned to patients.

The most effective for low back pain:

  • Specially prepared electrophoresis;
  • Mud bag;
  • Paraffin wax and ozokerite applications;
  • Turpentine and pearl bath;
  • Pulse therapy;
  • Muscle electrical stimulation;
  • Acupuncture.

In order to stabilize the vertebrae and reduce the burden on the lower back muscles, doctors recommend the use of orthopedic corsets. They are particularly effective for chronic pain caused by the destruction of vertebral structure. Using an applicator can speed up recovery.

The positive effects of these products are as follows:

  • The pain syndrome is eliminated or significantly reduced;
  • The nervous system is in normal condition;
  • Improve vitality and efficiency;
  • The metabolic process in the body is accelerated;
  • Spastic muscle relaxation.

Therapeutic exercise can only be done during the remission period, and there is little or no pain. A strong corset can prevent most musculoskeletal diseases well.

Note:High-power loads, sharp turns in the trunk, jumping, running and swinging legs are prohibited.

Therefore, back pain is a sign of spinal or internal organ disease. In order to prevent the chronicity of the pathological process and prevent possible complications, it is necessary to consult a specialist.